Correlated Magnetics Research makes Polymagnets with precision auto-alignment by applying Barker correlation codes and techniques commonly used in the world of radar. Here is a simplified explanation, including a bit of background information about correlation codes.
When mathematical waves or curves such as sine waves are in phase (i.e., when they line up), they are additive, meaning the sum of all the components is positive. Another way to say it is that if you add a mathematical curve to itself, the values reinforce one another. When they are out of phase, that is if you shift the curve and add the original curve to the shifted version, they can actually cancel each other out.
Polymagnet Alignment How it works
To further expand on this notion, imagine adding a sine wave to itself. All the 1/-1/1s become 1/-2/2s. Shift the curve by 1 unit, then add it to the original unshifted curve, and you get 0/0/0. Similarly, you can take patterns that have similar +1/-1 structures of varying length, and when aligned, the sum of all units equals the total number of units. When shifted or offset, the sum of all units is much lower (0 or 1). The Barker 7 sequence, for example, has 7 units. When aligned, the sum is 7; when offset, the sum is 0 or -1.
Barker correlation codes are unique sequences of +1s and -1s in a function such that when it is lined up with a copy of itself, the two functions resonate strongly with one another as describe above, but when they are shifted, this resonance falls off dramatically. These sums in Polymagnets lead to preferred alignment, as described below.
The patented method used by Correlated Magnetics to program magnets involves applying these Barker code behaviors to pattern of magnetic north and south poles, which is also patented. Instead of curves being in and out of phase by time (communications theory), the patterns of magnetic north and south poles can be in and out of phase by position — physically shifting or offsetting the poles past each other. When they all line up, they can attract one another. In the other positions, cancellation or repulsion occurs, depending on the pattern.
Applying Barker codes to program their magnets, Correlated Magnetics uses patterns of magnetic north and south poles instead of 1s and -1s to program how tightly the magnets attract and hold one another, how abruptly the attraction falls off as they are shifted with respect to one another, and more. Correlated Magnetics deliberately shifts the positions of several N and S poles on two magnets according to Barker code patterns such that the magnets attract one another strongly when perfectly aligned, yet repel when slightly shifted. The pattern of norths and souths can even be reversed, causing the magnets to repel one another.
Check out the various magnetic product that you can get in Singapore.
Where can you buy “Neodymium” magnet in Singapore?
Neodymium magnet also known as NEO magnet has a very strong magnet strength. The bigger it is, the more magnetic strength it has.
Handle with care especially if the magnet is big. The strength of the magnet is enough to get you hurt badly. Always wrap around the magnet with thick packaging. The magnet is actually quite brittle and can chip off easily. Once the magnet is in contact with another magnet, the likely way to separate them is to slide them away from each other. The bigger the magnet, the more difficult it is to slide them apart.
A liquid magnet is known as Ferrofluid. Being liquid means it does not have any forms. This results in its ability to display itself in a shape of the magnetic field. It is fun and educational to watch the ferrofluid changing its pattern when interacting with a physical magnet.
Places where you can buy Ferrofluid
HSMAG Ferrofluid (FerroTec) Bulk Ferrofluid (100ml), Educational Innovations Ferrofluid in a Bottle, Simply Clever Toys
Magnet putty is a semi-solid stuff. It looks like soft play dough. Due to its magnetic properties, the magnet putty changes its shape and move when there is a magnet nearby influencing it.
Places where you can buy Magnet Putty to play with
HangSeng Magnetics Sticky Putty, Mark’s Magnetic Thinking Putty Crazy Aaron Magnetic Thinking Putty, Simply Clever Toys
High Tech Magnetic technology Polymagnet
High Tech Magnetic products – Polymagnet
This is the latest magnet technology on the market. The magnet is printed and is able to generate creative magnet field pattern. This results in many creative applications that we could not imagine implement using this magnet technology.
HANGSENG MAGNETICS (HSMAG) Polymagnet (Correlated Magnetics Research LLC)
Magnetic alloys are alloys engineered to have special magnetic properties.
Permalloy is the term for a nickel iron magnetic alloy. Generically, it refers to an alloy with about 20% iron and 80% nickel content. Permalloy has a high magnetic permeability, low coercivity, near zero magnetostriction, and significant anisotropic magnetoresistance. The low magnetostriction is critical for industrial applications, where variable stresses in thin films would otherwise cause a ruinously large variation in magnetic properties. Permalloy’s electrical resistivity generally varies within the range of 5% depending on the strength and the direction of an applied magnetic field.
Permalloy is used in transformer laminations and magnetic recording head sensors. In its initial application, Permalloy was wrapped around the insulated copper conductors of telecommunication cables, reducing signal distortion through improved inductive compensation of cable capacitive reactance.
The right conditions for transmitting signals through cables without distortion were first worked out mathematically by Oliver Heaviside. After a prolonged search, Permalloy was discovered in 1914 by Gustav Elmen of Bell Laboratories, who found it had higher permeability than silicon steel. Later, in 1923, he found its permeability could be greatly enhanced by heat treatment. Other compositions of Permalloy are available, designated by a numerical prefix denoting the percentage of nickel in the alloy, for example 45 Permalloy containing 45% nickel, and 55% iron. Molybdenum Permalloy is an alloy of 81% nickel, 17% iron and 2% molybdenum. The latter was invented at Bell Labs in 1940. At the time, when used in long distance copper telephone lines, it allowed a tenfold increase in maximum line working speed.
Supermalloy is an alloy composed of Ni (79%), Mo (5%), and Fe.
It is a magnetically soft material. The resistivity of the alloy is 6 nΩ·cm2/cm. It has a high magnetic permeability and a low coercivity. Supermalloy is used in manufacturing of components of radio engineering, telephony, and telemechanics instruments.
Mu-metal is a nickel-iron alloy (75% nickel, 15% iron, plus copper and molybdenum) that has very high magnetic permeability. Permeability is represented by μ.
The high permeability makes mu-metal very effective at screening static or low-frequency magnetic fields, which cannot be attenuated by other methods.
Mu metal requires special heat treatment — annealing in hydrogen atmosphere, which reportedly increases the magnetic permeability about 40 times. The annealing alters the material’s crystal structure, aligning the grains and removing some impurities, especially carbon. Mechanical treatment may disrupt the material’s grain alignment, leading to drop of permeability in the affected areas, which can be restored by repeating of the hydrogen annealing step.
Mu-metal is used to shield equipment from magnetic fields. For example:
Vacuum chambers for experiments with low-energy electrons, for example photoelectron spectroscopy Magnetic resonance imaging equipment The magnetometers used in magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography
Cathode-ray tubes used in analog oscilloscopes Superconducting circuits and esp. Josephson junction circuits Electric power transformers, which are built with mu-metal shells to prevent them from affecting nearby circuitry Magnetic cartridges, which have a mu-metal case to reduce interference when LPs are played back Hard Drives, which have mu-metal backings to the magnets found in the drive Other materials with similar magnetic properties are supermalloy, supermumetal, nilomag, sanbold, Molybdenum Permalloy, Ultraperm, M-1040, etc.
A Heusler alloy is a ferromagnetic metal alloy based on a Heusler phase. Heusler phases are intermetallics with particular composition and fcc crystal structure. They are ferromagnetic even though the constituting elements are not as a result of the double-exchange mechanism between neighboring magnetic ions, usually manganese which sit at the body centers in a Heusler alloy. The magnetic moment usually resides almost solely on the manganese atom in these alloys.
The term is named after a German mining engineer and chemist Friedrich Heusler, who studied such an alloy in 1903. It contained two parts copper, one part manganese, and one part tin. The Heusler alloy Cu2MnAl has been the subject of a considerable number of studies and the stoichiometric alloy (i.e. one in which the proportion of elements is exactly as in the formula above) has the following properties. It has a room temperature saturation induction of around 8,000 gauss (Bouchard 1970) which is in excess of that of the element nickel (around 6100 gauss) although less than that of iron (around 21500 gauss). Early studies (Heusler 1903, Knowlton and Clifford 1912, review Bozorth 1951) showed that the magnetic properties varied considerably with heat treatment and composition. Bradley and Rogers (1934) first showed that the room-temperature ferromagnetic phase was a fully ordered structure of the L21 type. This has a primitive cubic lattice of copper atoms which has alternate cells body-centred by manganese and aluminium . The lattice parameter is 5.95 angstrom units. The molten alloy has a solidus temperature around 910oC. As it is cooled below this temperature the fully disordered solid body-centred cubic beta phase forms. Below 750oC a B2 ordered lattice forms (Nesterenko 1969, Bouchard 1970) with a primitive cubic copper lattice body-centred by a disordered manganese aluminium sublattice. Cooling below 610oC causes further ordering of the manganese and aluminium sub-lattice to the L21 form (Bouchard 1970, Ohoyama et al 1968). Studies of off-stoichiometric alloys have been made by West and Lloyd-Thomas (1956), Johnston and Hall (1968) and Bouchard (1970). In general the ordering temperatures decrease for these compositions and the range of temperatures within which the alloy can be annealed without forming microprecipitates becomes small.
Oxley et al (1963) found a value of 357oC for the Curie temperature, below which the alloy becomes ferromagnetic. A variety of investigators using neutron diffraction and other techniques (e.g. Endo et al 1963, Bouchard 1970) have shown that a magnetic moment of around 3.7 bohr magnetons resides almost solely on the manganese atoms. As these atoms are 4.2 Angstrom units apart, it seems likely that the exchange interaction aligning the spins must be indirect through conduction electrons or the aluminium and copper atoms. Theoretical studies of the interaction have been made by Oxley et al (1963) and Geldart and Ganguly (1970).
Electron microscope studies (Nesterenko 1969, Bouchard 1970) have shown that thermal antiphase boundaries (APBs) form during cooling through the ordering temperatures as ordered domains nucleate at different centres within the crystal lattice and are often out of step with each other where they meet. The anti-phase domains grow as the alloy is annealed. There are two types of APB corresponding to the B2 and L21 types of ordering. APBs also form between dislocations if the alloy is deformed. At the APB the manganese atoms will be closer than in the bulk of the alloy and electron microscope studies (Lapworth and Jakubovics 1974) showed that for non-stoichiometric alloys with an excess of copper (e.g. Cu2.2MnAl0.8) an antiferromagnetic layer forms on every thermal APB. These antiferromagnetic layers completely supersede the normal magnetic domain structure and stay with the APBs if they are grown by annealing the alloy. This significantly modifies the magnetic properties of the non-stoichiometric alloy relative to the stoichiometric alloy which has a normal domain structure. Presumably this phenomenon is related to the fact that pure manganese is an antiferromagnet although it is not clear why the effect is not observed in the stoichiometric alloy. Similar effects occur at APBs in the ferromagnetic alloy MnAl at its stoichiometric composition.
In recent time, the importance of Heusler alloys for spintronics has been increasing.
Another useful Heusler alloy is the class of materials known as ferromagnetic shape memory alloys which can change their length by up to 10% on application of a magnetic field. These are generally an alloy of nickel-manganese-gallium.
Fernico is an alloy of Iron (Fer), Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co). The abbreviations form the name which was a trademark. The alloy has the same linear coefficient of expansion of certain types of glass, and thus makes an ideal material for the lead out wires in light bulbs and thermionic valves.
Cunife exhibits a similar property.
Cunife is an alloy of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), and in some cases cobalt (Co). The alloy has the same linear coefficient of expansion of certain types of glass, and thus makes an ideal material for the lead out wires in light bulbs and thermionic valves. It is magnetic and can be used for making magnets.
Fernico exhibits a similar property.
Cunife 1 consists of 60% Cu, 20% Ni, and 20% Fe. Cunife 2 consists of 60% Cu, 20% Ni, 2.5% Co, and 17.5% Fe.
Alcomax is a magnetic material consisting of an alloy of iron, nickel, aluminium, cobalt and copper. It is manufactured by traditional foundry casting or sintering techniques and was developed in the 1930s. Its principal applications are for triggering of proximity switches such as reeds and hall sensors. Other applications include, instrumentation, high temperature ‘pot’, holding magnets, horseshoe designs for lifting, entry door locks, NDT, magnetic fluid seals, and ferrous separation including sump plugs.
This material offers the best temperature coefficient (0.02% per degree Celsius) of all permanent magnets, thus making it an ideal choice when a constant field over a wide (-270 °C to +500 °C) temperature range is required.
The high nickel content results in good stability against corrosion and oxidation, this metallic composition is also a good electrical conductor, however being coarse-grained, hard and brittle, they can not be drilled or conventionally machined and should not be used as a structural component.
Alcomax is a low coercive force material and where possible should be magnetised after assembly. Its performance can be easily reduced by poor handling or exposure to other magnetic fields. Again, because of low coercivity to reach optimum performance, rod magnets should have a magnetic length of approximately five times the diameter when used in open circuit applications. For example, a rod magnet of 5 mm diameter should be 25 mm magnetic length. Because of the cobalt content within the magnet composition Alcomax magnets are not low-cost solutions.
Soft magnetic material includes a wide variety of nickel-iron and nickel-cobalt soft magnetic alloys and pure iron for high performance components requiring high initial and maximum permeability coupled with ease of fabrication.
Sophisticated equipment, advanced technology and the expertise developed for producing aeronautical grade alloys are employed for manufacturing, high performance soft magnetic material.
Starting with ultra clean raw materials, special processes and techniques are used for melting and refining this material under controlled atmospheric conditions in the Air Induction Melting, Vacuum Induction Refining and Vacuum Induction Melting furnaces. The final product is manufactured through a combination of forging, hot and cold rolling, wire drawing and heat treatment depending on the customer`s specifications.
Soft Magnetic Alloys
Soft magnetic alloys includes two alloy systems:
Softmag Alloys Sofcomag Alloy
1. Softmag Alloys
The iron-nickel SOFTMAG alloys exhibit a wide range of magnetic properties in relation to their nickel content. The high nickel alloys have high initial permeability but low saturation, whereas the low nickel alloys are lower in initial permeability but higher in saturation induction. Small amounts of other alloying elements, particularly molybdenum and copper, are added to these alloys and special processing techniques such as annealing in hydrogen are employed in order to develop or accentuate specific characteristics.
Softmag can be broadly classified into six categories:
SOFTMAG 30 Series (30%Ni, Fe rest) – low curie point, temperature compensator alloys. In this type of alloys, by slight compositional variation, the curie point can be brought down to between +40 and +100°C which is mostly used for temperature compensation in magnetic circuit, temperature-sensitive switches and relays. SOFTMAG 36 Series (36%Ni, Fe rest) – low-permeability, high resistivity alloys. These are two alloys having the same composition but different magnetic properties due to different processing methods. 36A Series is distinguished by the linearity of its magnetic property and finds application in weak fields in the form of laminations. 36B Series is characterized by very high electrical resistivity, good permeability and low electrical loss. This alloy is mostly used in relays and pulse transformers. SOFTMAG 48 Series (48%Ni, Fe rest) – medium-permeability, high saturation alloys. These are alloys-with similar composition but different magnetic properties. 48A Series is specially heat treated to attain special properties in low fields, for example, to lower the Rayleigh Region coefficient (g/m). This alloy is supplied in finishing heat-treated condition only, in the form of cores and laminations. They are used in telephone equipment and in some measuring devices. 48B Series shows high initial permeability in low fields. It is used for making relays, transformers, solenoids, current transformers, safety plugs for gas applications. 48C Series is a superior version of 48B Series and exhibits very high permeability and low hysteresis loss. It is available in the form of thin strips, cores and laminations. This alloy is used for making electrical components, small sensitive relays, current transformers, differential detectors, transducers, etc. 48D Series is a square loop version of 48B Series produced by adjusting the composition and subsequent rolling and annealing process achieving a high remanence of flux density due to the cube texture. 48D Series alloy is supplied in the form of strips, cores used in magnetic amplifiers, DC-DC transformers, memories, switching devices, etc. SOFTMAG 53 Series (53%Ni, Fe rest) – high-permeability, medium saturation alloys. 53 Series is a vacuum melted nickel-iron alloy offering a high induction at saturation in conjunction with high permeabilities. It is used only in the form of cores in current transformers, differential detectors, etc. SOFTMAG 76 Series (76%Ni, Fe rest) – high permeability, low saturation alloys. 76 is an alloy with saturation induction which is higher than that of 78 Series (-8500 G). This alloy has been specially developed for split armature coils of telephones. SOFTMAG 78 Series (78%Ni, Fe rest) – very high permeability, l ow saturation alloys. This family of alloys shows very high initial and maximum permeability- at low magnetizing forces, low core losses and very good magnetic shielding characteristics. There are six grades of alloys under this series, composed basically of 78% Ni-Fe-Mo and classified according to their permeability characteristics. 78A Series, 78B Series & 78C Series contain small quantities of copper in addition to molybdenum as an alloying element. They are supplied in the form of sheets, strips, cores and laminations. 78D Series & Series 78E are supplied only as tape wound cores in the heat-treated condition to gain optimum magnetic properties higher permeability and reduced losses. Series 78F is an alloy which exhibits a rectangular hysteresis loop due to special heat treatment. It is obtained from 78D Series heats and is used in the form of cores for magnetic amplifiers, DC transformers, memories, etc.
2. Sofcomag Alloys
The iron-cobalt SOFCOMAG family of alloys are characterized by moderately high permeability and very high saturation induction. While iron-nickel Softmag alloys attain the maximum saturation induction of about 1.5 teslas, the SOFCOMAG alloys can achieve saturation induction values as high as 2.3 teslas. They are also marked by their low electrical resistivity and high hysteresis loss. SOFCOMAG can be broadly classified into two series:
SOFCOMAG 25 (25% Co, Fe rest) SOFCOMAG 49 (49% Co, Fe rest) SOFCOMAG 25 is an alloy which exhibits the highest saturation flux density of all the magnetic alloys. Its high curie point enables its use in areas where the magnetic properties have to remain unimpaired even at high temperatures of about 500°C. This alloy is designed for application in electrical equipment requiring high saturation; induction in high magnetic field as in. electric motor parts of aircraft for which weight is an important consideration. It is also used for magnetic poles of electromagnets.
SOFCOMAG 49A is similar to SOFCOMAG 25 in respect of its high saturation flux density. However, it offers a higher resistivity than SOFCOMAG 25. This yields low eddy current losses at high induction levels. In addition to electric motors for aircraft, SOFCOMAG 49A is also used for its high positive magnetostriction in sonar applications and ultrasonic equipment.
SOFCOMAG 49B is similar to SOFCOMAG 49A but is given special properties due to different processing methods. Hence the hysteresis cycle of this grade is rectangular.
Regularly we see a magnetic water conditioner including two magnets with opposite magnetic poles face-to-face cliped together, just simply clip them together onto the water pipes will get a magnetized water resulting from flowing water cutting the magnetic filed. The advantages are low cost and simple operation but the only disadvantage is weak magnetic field due to attraction by those two magnets. When using this device, we have to pay attention that better clip it to the plastic pipes or stainless steel or copper pipes but not on iron pipes.
The magnetic water conditioner with single magnetic pole technology is of higher effecient and bigger room of application. While as we all know it is rather hard to achieve single side magnetism, for all magnets are with two oppisite magnetic poles, so we have to achieve it by some special design and structure. The structure is based on some particular magnetic array to achieve concentration of magnetic force, it will get better penetration in compare with normal two poles magnets. As follows is a Halbach array that will help us to get single side magnetism by concentrating magnetic force on one side. According to actual application, we can range magnets in a line and in a circle.
circle halbach array
bar halbach array
For Bar halbach array and circle halbach array we can findout the magnetic field distribution respectively as follows:
From the above photos we can findout that if we use circle halbach array, 90% magnetic force can be concentrated inside the circle, this will get better water magnetization. The magnetic water conditioner with this technology has much higher efficient and powerful cleaning ability, especially in agriculture, it has much bigger room than regular magnetic water conditioner.
HSMAG is able to make every kind of Halbach Array in straight line or circle forms, welcome your inquiries to sales.
Using high-performance rare earth permanent magnet materials, no carbon brushes, permanent magnet synchronous gearless traction machine can drive efficiency up to 90%. It effectively improves the energy efficiency with energy saving, environmental protection, low speed and high torque characteristics. Gearless traction machine can be dividedinto the inner rotor and outer rotor based on the rotor structure, whilepermanent magnets stick to these rotors.
Synchronous Traction Motor Permanent Magnets
Due to the special work environment of the elevator, it is possibility that magneton the motor will demagnetize after prolonged use, for example: 1. Unqualified rare earth permanent magnet; 2. Unsaturated magnetization; 3. Motor working temperature exceed magnet permitted range; 4. Long oxidation of rare earth permanent magnet;
In orderto avoid the above situation occurs in practice, the elevator magnets needs careful and meticulous design and manufacturing. Magnet design also needs to consider magnet size, magnetic properties and the worst working conditions of motor. It is better that the magnetic properties are higher than the practical requirement. Before installation, rare earth permanent magnets should pass high temperature aging test and saltspray test.
For a long time, elevator manufacturers use bonding process to fix permanent magnets on the rotors. Theoretically, using glue and magnetic force, it could be okay. But In some cases magnets will tear off because of high temperature or other reasons. To reinforce magnet on the rotor and reduce the problems caused by magnet dropping, it can combine screws and adhesive binding by making a countersunk on the basis of simple block or arc magnets.
HSMAG makes quality neodymium magnets for elevator traction motors, welcome your inquiries for our magnets.
Today I need to discuss how wind turbine functions. The point has come up a couple of times in discussions I’ve had with other do-it-yourselfers, and the response to that address is shockingly straightforward. Obviously the short reply to the inquiry is that a wind turbine works by catching wind vitality and transforming it into power. From that point, that power is sent by wire to your home, your carport, or your vitality stockpiling framework (generally batteries).
As a general rule however we can go much deeper than that without getting excessively convoluted; it’s about the material science of catching the wind. To blanket the theme well we have to discuss two components. First and foremost we have to blanket how wind vitality is caught. From that point, we have to discuss how that motor vitality is transformed into usable power.
Wind Turbine Working Principle And How to Make
How a Wind Turbine Works – Capturing the Wind
To begin we have to blanket one straightforward thought. A wind turbine catches the forward power of the wind and after that uses that constrain to turn the sharpened pieces of steel. What’s truly happening here is that we’re taking the forward force of the wind, and transforming it into a sideways push to turn the sharpened pieces of steels. The razor-sharp edge configuration of your wind turbine is really what’s dependable from this exchange of vitality. By utilizing a tilted or bent sharpened steel (generally both tilted and bent), the wind is redirected in such a path, to the point that the wind pushes it sideways and thusly turns the edge.
Obviously we likewise need to discuss the tailpiece of your turbine. Without one the sideways drive pushed by the bend of your cutting edges might turn the whole turbine collect instead of simply the sharpened pieces of steels. While the wind pushes sideways on your edges to turn then, it’s likewise streaming straightforwardly permit the tailpiece which keeps the gathering confronting the wind and permits your sharpened pieces of steels to turn openly.
How Wind Turbines Works – Turning Wind Energy into Electricity
When we comprehend the nuts and bolts of how the wind pushes the power to turn the cutting edges, we additionally need to discuss how the power is generated. Behind the sharpened steel get together is a magnet rotor, which is appended to a pole, which thusly is connected to your wind generator. In most private requisitions the wind generator is something as straightforward as a DC engine.
In the event that you comprehend the essentials of power, then you might realize that by turning magnets around a transmitter you handle power. Basically this is the thing that a DC engine is. It comprises strong magnets that can pivot around a conductive focus. As your turbine edges turn in the wind the pole turns your magnets in your DC engine which handles usable power. Basically this is wind turbines work, and in spite of the fact that we’ve just investigated the physical science behind everything, you now have a superior understanding of how to catch the wind to power your home.